Narrated by: Claudia VázquezFrom: Nueva Reforma, Tacotalpa, Tabasco.Elaborated by: María de Jesús Martínez Pérez Adelaida López GutiérrezBA students in Lengua y Cultura, 6th semester in Oxolotán, Tabasco
On Septebmer 7th 2017, Mrs. Claudia was in her house cleaning up the dishes in the kitchen before going to bed. She began to hear noises, as if someone was washing a lot of pots. She thought it must be her neighbor still awake.
Mrs. Claudia went to peek in the corridor of her neighbor’s house to see if the light was on, but there was nothing, and it looked as if the neighbor had already gone to bed.
She went back to her house, but still heard the noises of the pots banging, but even louder. She was scared and went to wake up her husband.
She told her husband that down in the stream someone was banging pots really loudly, but Mr. Jorge didn’t hear anything. She thought it must be the the lord of the creek, the wäläk ok.
Mrs. Claudia was really scared and shouted: ¡Oh my God, what’s happening!
Once she stopped hearing the noise, she felt a strong earthquake. She yelled and woke up all of her family and neighbors. She thanked the wäläk ok, the lord of the creek, for warning about the the earthquake with the noises he had made.
Our language has different variants, and depending on the place in which it is spoken it can be identified as the dialect of Tila or of Tumbalá. Some words are different, but they have the same meaning. Here are some examples:
Tila Tumbalá Meaning
Tyuñ Xajlel Rock
Ch’ijch’um Ñi’uk’ chayote
Ch’ek’ajk Luty roasted corn
Yum Tatuch grandfather
Luty Loj twin
Mam Buts grandchild
Chonkol Woli to be doing (progressive)
Majlel Sam go
Yoke ja’as Ichija’as banana
Chakal Pits’il naked
K’uk’um Tsutsel feather
Tyejch Kej round and flat (classifier of shapes)
Toñel E’tyel work
Xä’bäl Käkäw Sa’ chocolate pozol
Xajk’ul Pats’ bean tamale
Xäk’ä’ Bu’lewaj bean tortilla
Sets’ Ch’ejew clay plate
Xk’aläl Xch’ok young woman
Bujk P’o’ clothing
Other words are not so different, but the pronunciation changes, for example
Momoñ Momoy Hierba Santa
Pusk’al Pusik’al heart
Semety Semejty comal
Yujmel Yunjel unlce
Jomoch’ Jomojch Joloche
Mep’ Ñep’ crab
Pejpem Pejpeñ butterfly
Ts’ijñ Ts’ijm yuca
Je’el Ja’el also
Ma’añ Ma’añik no, there aren’t
Ajñisañ Ajñesañ chase it!
k’änjol K’ajñol pillow
Xiye’ Xäye’ eagle
A’bälel Ak’lel night
Pijchik’ Pintsik’ zanate
Che’jk’o’ Ch’ejk’u’ woodpecker
The following audio was recorded by Silvestre Gómez Jiménez, a cultural promoter who worked in CELALI:
The kuj is a bird that has won the respect, admiration, and fear of the Ch’ol people because of his wisdom and knowledge. The owl is capable of predicting, alerting, and communicating dangers within the community. They say that if the kuj cries out in the night near a person’s house, then there will be health problems with someone in that house, or someone will have an accident or even die. In some cases when the community members notice the presence of the owl, they go out of their house to scare him away, or even try to kill him. But the effort is in van, because the problems will still happen.
The owl we hear at night or in the morning
Jiñi xkuj mi jkubiloñ tyi ak’lel o che’ tyi weñ säk’añ
We are afraid because we don't know if the message is for our family
Mi kbäjñalojoñ kome mach jkulik mi wä’ mi kaj yujtyel wokol
Sometimes it only scares us on its way to another place
Tyajoljach mi kbäktyesaloñ cha’añ mi majlel tyi yambä lumal
I don't kill it because it could be the nahual of another person
Joñoñ ma’añik mi ktsäñtsañ ame iwäyik lakpi’ilob
The first people in this land believed that we were created by our gods from corn, and this is also what the writers of the book the Popol Vuh tell us. This makes sense because it is the base of our food, it nourishes us, keeps us alive, and gives us strength. We drink it in the form of pozol and atole. We eat it as corn on the cob, tortillas, empanadas, and tamales. There are many different kinds of corn that can be grown in our communities. There are big and small corns, and red, white, yellow, and blue corn. Our grandparents teach that we cannot leave corn thrown on the ground, and we also can’t leave the seeds in the path in the mountains, because they say it cries. They say that if we don’t appreciate the corn, it will not thrive in our fields.
In some Chol communities in Tila, Chiapas, the traditional music known as Malintzin is still conserved. It can be heard in different religious festivals, for example during Christmas, New Years, and the Festivals of the Virgin of Guadaluple, the Señor de Tila, Santa Cruz, and many more. A get together happens in the houses of the mayordomos, and the music is there to lift the spirits of the visitors and of the celebrated saints. The musical fragment here belongs to the community of Nueva Esperanza, in the municipality of Tila, Chiapas.
Our language Ch’ol is different from Spanish (and other languages). It is written differently and has its own special sounds. It has the following 29 letters:
The following are the sounds of the alphabet––listen:
This recording was made in the Centro Estatal de Lenguas, Arte y Literatura Indígenas (CELALI), located in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 2009. The voice is of the Cultural Promotor, Silvestre Gómez Jiménez, originally from the community of Nuevo Limar, Tila.
The language Chol uses a vigesimal (base-20) counting system. Here are the numerals for 1–20:
Jun 1 Junlujun 11
Cha’ 2 Lajchän 12
Ux 3 Uxlujun 13
Chän 4 Chänlujun 14
Jo’ 5 Jo’lujun 15
Wäk 6 Wäklujun 16
Wuk 7 Wuklujun 17
Waxäk 8 Waxäklujun 18
Bolon 9 Bolonlujum 19
Lujun 10 Junk’al 20
In our language Chol, when we count things the form of the number must change depending on the form of the objects being counted, for example depending on whether they are round, long, standing; whether the thing being counted is an person or an animal, as in the following examples:
In San Miguel, Salto de Agua, Chiapas, there is a waterfall called Misolha (from misol ‘sweep’, and ja’ ‘water’) ‘fall of water’. Today this place is one of the major tourist centers of the municipality, and is frequently visited by people from different parts of the country and from abroad. But the first settlers who encountered the waterfall tell of the dangers that the yum ja’ (water lord).
One evening, when the Ch’ol people were searching for land for planting, they heard the sound of water in the distance. They were tired and quite thirsty, so they went in search of the water, but they never imagined that they would run into the yum ja’ there. At that time, he did not show himself in person, but he used the ik’ (air), the ja’al (rain) and the mam (lightning) to send messages.
The first thing that impressed people was the height of the falls and the rainbow that formed above the water. Then suddenly, a voice was heard saying…
“I know that you were expelled from your community and have nowhere else to stay. That’s the only way I let people enter my house. But as for the people who do not respect my house I will not respect them either, and that’s how it will be with your wives, brothers, and children.”
After having listened to the yum ja’, the group felt sad and unsure about his welcome, because they did not know what to expect, or what would happen to them if they did not fulfill his wishes. The next day, the small group of Ch’oles left again for their places of origin to go in search of their relatives and other people who had wanted to found a new community.
Once the Ch’ol people managed to settle near the waterfall, they started hunting animals for their food, they started logging and burning many swaths of rainforests for their crops, and then they even began to steal treasures that were hidden in the mountains and caves. When the yum ja’ became aware of this situation he began to communicate his anger through dreams with laktyaty (‘our father’):
“I saw how the kaxlans (Ladino people) came to burn houses. The tenants of the place cried and it was impossible to show resistance, because the group that had come to harm them were mounted and carried machetes.”
Laktyaty, surprised by the revelation, called a meeting to gather the inhabitants of the community and communicates the message he had heard. However, his words were not taken into account and many men and women continued with the same practices as before.
The yum ja’ realized that his words had been disobeyed, so he again reached out to the laktyaty and his community:
‘’You saw how the ja’al flooded the houses and the crops near the rivers and streams. The roofs of houses, trees and crops fell by the forces of ik’. Mam flashed and shouted at sunset and nightfall.”
Laktyaty understood that the dreamed message had come from the yum ja’ and after reaching consensus with his family, they decided to bring him an offering and prayers. But suddenly a current of air extinguished the candles and they heard a voice that said:
“So this is how they repay me for the favors I gave them? I inhabit this house and I will not allow it to be destroyed!”
Laktyaty again tells his family and friends about the event, and manages to convince some of their children so that each year they bring a token of gratitude to the yum ja’. Still not satisfied with this situation, the yum ja’ meets Ik’, Ja‘al and Mam, and each one asks for support to defend the inhabitants of the jungle.
The Ja’al constantly floods the well of Misolha, it makes it deeper and more turbid, and that prevents people from enjoying the natural color and beauty of the water. This in turn generates economic losses for the owners of established businesses there.
The Ik’, is in charge of sweeping the clouds to other places and with its blowing it also often generates large fires in the mountains and in the crops in the burning season. It also creates a whirlpool to trap and submerge people in the depths of the waterfall.
The Mam, for his part, flashes and shouts the passage of the ik’ and ja’al; he burns the looters physically and spiritually and when he can, he goes back to hiding the treasures in inaccessible places.
The yum ja’ is still alive and constantly visits the community of San Miguel.